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Putting Process at the Centre of Business Management

Roger Tregear Roger Tregear on March 14, 2018

Putting Process at the centre of business management Many organizations face the complex dilemma of dealing with major strategic and operational changes, often simultaneously. The complexity of the management challenge is increasing, often with alarming speed and consequences. This causes, not just a superabundance of operational problems, but strategic hazards that may test the viability of the organization. Key macro-challenges might include:
  • radically increased customer expectations
  • sector and business-model disruption
  • reducing costs of market entry
  • intensified competition
  • radically and rapidly changing technology
  • cost pressures
  • mounting regulatory-compliance demands
  • diminishing staff numbers
  • increasing operational complexity
  • fragile workforce enthusiasm

These are mission-critical problems and there is a growing realization that something new is needed if they are to be solved.

The organization chart shapes traditional management. Management effort consequently focuses on functional areas, i.e. ‘boxes on the chart’, and is easily fragmented. This form of ‘functional’ management has always been a key feature of management practice. Long before the invention of the theory of contemporary management in the first half of the twentieth century, organizations have structured themselves into units based on the type of work performed.

Just as clearly, to get work done, to deliver value (products and services) to customers, requires collaboration across the organization and coordinated work across the separate functional areas. Every organization creates, accumulates, and delivers value across its organizational structure. Resources are managed ‘vertically’, following the organization chart, but the value pathway is ‘horizontal’, based on cross-functional collaboration.

To take a familiar example, imagine the sequence involved in air travel. The passenger arrives, checks in, boards the plane, completes the flight, retrieves luggage, and leaves the airport. For the passenger to have a good trip, all of that must go well. No point having the world’s best check-in service if the luggage is lost. Having to find lost luggage is both annoying for the passenger and expensive for the airline.

The creation, accumulation, and delivery of value to customers is inherently cross-functional and requires collaboration across the organization, and often beyond into other organizations. This is fact, not an opinion to challenge or a point of view to contest. Management needs its own disruption, a radical departure from the traditional model.

Organizations must be good at identifying circumstances that threaten performance, but that is not enough. They also need to look for characteristics that make it strong, and for opportunities to do something new, perhaps radically innovative.

It is no longer enough, if it ever was, to focus on immediate performance issues and ignore opportunities for improvement. Henry Ford reduced the build-time for a Model T chassis from 12½ to 1½ hours—a prodigious feat, an innovation whose impact is still felt today, but it would have been pointless if no one wanted to buy a car.

In 1976, with a ninety per cent share of the US market, Eastman Kodak was ubiquitous; by the late 1990s it was struggling; by 2012 it was in bankruptcy protection. Despite having invented the digital camera in 1975, Kodak was slow to react to a serious decline in photographic film sales. At its peak, Kodak also had a great story to tell about increasing efficiency and performance improvement. It became efficient at producing a product few wanted, and good at delivering services few needed.

In times where digital substitutes overwhelm established business models, every organization must expect to have its own ‘Kodak moment’.

The primacy of process

A business process is a collection of activities that transforms one or more inputs into one or more outputs. Many resources are involved in the management and execution of a process—customers, staff, materials, systems, infrastructure, information, technology, suppliers, facilities, policies, regulations—and these must also be seen to be integral to the definition of process. Processes are vital because this is how organizations get work done.

The fundamental concept underpinning the ideas and practices described in this paper is the primacy of process. This says that business processes are the only way any organization can deliver value to customers and other stakeholders outside the organization. By themselves, the separate functional areas of an organization cannot deliver value to external parties. It follows that every organization executes its strategic intent via its business processes.

The sequence from strategy to execution is shown in Figure 1, encapsulating both the strategic and the operational importance of the process view. 


The inescapable conclusion is that the starting point for effective organizational management is to understand, manage, and optimize those business processes. Without a proactive focus on business processes, organizational performance cannot improve and strategy cannot be effectively executed.

  • If value is created, accumulated, and delivered across the organization, are those value pathways defined and documented?
  • If value is created, accumulated, and delivered across the organization, what measures of performance are made in that direction?
  • If value is created, accumulated, and delivered across the organization, who is in charge of that?

Organizations must reimagine their operations as value creation and delivery flows that must be proactively managed and continually improved. The management philosophy that facilitates that is process-based management.

Defining process-based management

Bringing together these concepts, three principles underpin process-based management:

1. Business processes are the collections of cross-functional activities that deliver value to an organization’s external customers and other stakeholders—the only way that any organization can deliver such value. Individual functional areas cannot, by them-selves, deliver value to external customers.

2. It follows that an organization executes its strategic intent via its business processes. Business processes are the conduits through which value is exchanged between customers and the organization. Therefore, business processes need to be thought-fully managed and continuously improved to maintain an unimpeded flow of value with customers and other stakeholders.

3. An organization’s resources are traditionally managed vertically via the organization chart. Value is created, accumulated, and delivered horizontally across that chart. Value is accumulated, not up and down the functions as represented in an organization chart, but across the organization as shown in a business process architecture. The various functions collaborate via business processes to create, accumulate, and deliver value to customers and other stakeholders in the form of a desired product, service, or some other outcome.


Figure 2: Functional and process organization views

The profound premise for process-based management is illustrated in Figure 2, showing both the functional and process organizational views.

Enabling process-based management

Seven elements, the 7Enablers of BPM, come together to create and sustain process-based management. If developed simultaneously at the pace appropriate to the organization, these elements significantly increase the likelihood of creating sustained process-based management.

The 7Enablers is a collective of mutually supportive prerequisites for successful and sustained process-based management.

  • Process architecture: discovery, understanding, and documentation of the organization’s business processes and related resources in a hierarchical model.
  • Process measurement: defining process performance measures and measurement methods, collecting and reporting process performance data.
  • Process governance: reimagining, and responding to, process performance anomalies, innovation opportunities, process documentation, and general hygiene.
  • Process change: continually discovering ways to close process performance gaps by eliminating problems and capitalizing on opportunities.
  • Process mindset: creating an environment where the organization, its people, and their teams, are always conscious of the processes in which they participate.
  • Process capability: developing the tools and skills required throughout the organization to identify, analyze, improve, innovate, and manage business processes.
  • Process support: providing support throughout the organization to develop, sustain, and realize process-based management benefits.

Figure 3: The 7Enablers of BPM

These seven enablers are shown in Figure 3. A Mobius strip format is used to highlight the interdependencies between the elements.

To thrive, perhaps even to survive, in times when ‘doing more with less’ seems both inevitable and impossible, executives need to reimagine their organizations as value-creation and delivery flows. Process-based management delivers a practical, proven approach and the 7Enablers represents a breakthrough in management practice.

Managing reimagination

This paper has discussed seven enablers of process-based management, seven elements that will put management focus where it should be, on cross-functional value creation, accumulation, and delivery. If you accept the premise that no unit identified on an organization chart can, by itself, deliver value to an external customer or other stakeholder, (and how could you not do so?) then you accept the main concept of process-based management. The inevitable consequence of that is acceptance of the certainty that processes must be identified, analyzed, improved and managed. Since the organization chart is silent on the management of cross-functional processes, a separate, targeted, and comprehensive intervention is required to enable process-based management and realize the benefits that come from it.

At a time when the requirement to ‘do more with less’ seems both inevitable and impossible, process-based management delivers a practical, proven approach.

This article is an edited extract from the book, Reimagining Management. From the foreword by Professor Michael Rosemann: ‘This book has the potential to become an essential, shared point of reference for designing organizations.’



Topics: BPM - Business Process Management

Creating Value in Customer Experience Management

Indrajit Datta Chaudhuri Indrajit Datta Chaudhuri on March 8, 2018


An organisation should be looking for ways to continually add value.At it's core Customer Experience Management understands what is of value for a customer, and how we create/deliver value, that will lead to actions that result in a good customer experience.

Value, in simple terms, is when the business offering meets the customer needs.

Defining ‘value’

Value is usefulness; value is utility; value is a problem solved. Value feels good.

Organisations constantly try to add value for their customers. In the past, there has been a siloed approach to adding this value. Each department put in an effort and attempted to give their best, only to find out that individual best does not necessarily lead to a holistic best, as sometimes the department’s direction is in conflict with others. A customer gets a good product and service when all the participants attempt to make the interaction value-added for the customer (not just the customer facing).

You may think that there is nothing new in this, and this is what people have always attempted. Every process-design effort undertaken in organisations has tried to achieve exactly that.

The key difference is that here we don’t need a stakeholder priority matrix to identify who to impress and who not to. The stakeholder is pre-identified—it’s the customer. The moment we say that every participant in the process is a customer, we are losing focus.

Here is where ‘product/service view’ comes into play. The following section is an attempt to reconcile the process and product/service views, and how that approach helps shift the focus from internal process participants to the customer.

Reconciling product/service, process and experience

Dr Michael Roseman, in his article Process management as service (2010), gave a very good description of process and service:

Process’ and ‘Service’ are complementary views on the same capability of an organization. As two distinct ‘sensitizing devices’, however, their associated viewpoints stress alternative facets of organizational capabilities. A process view sharpens the understanding for the operational model of a capability. It provides the required analytical foundation to reflect on the current and potential future performance of a capability as far as this performance can be impacted by the way it is delivered. As such, a process view can be seen as an approach to ‘white box a corporate capability’.

In contrast, a service-oriented (external) view on a corporate capability can be regarded as a ‘black box’ perspective. The emphasis is, as described above, on the conscious abstraction of the internal operations of this capability. Instead, the focus is on the overall value proposition (what can the service provide?), the related costs, the underlying governance model (‘what happens when the service fails, i.e., service continue management’), and further non-functional service properties as part of a service level agreement (response time, quality standards, etc.).

It is important to have a service (and/or product) view, because that is what the customer is ultimately consuming; the processes remain the mechanisms to deliver the service (and/or product).

For example: In a salon, the haircut is a service: take a ticket, wait, get a haircut and then pay for the haircut (make payment) is the process. The combination of a quick cut, easy payment and a nice hairstyling that gets you positive attention by your friends is good customer experience.

Product/Service is about benefits.

Process is about the mechanism to deliver a product/service. Experience is about the overall feeling that the customer has about the interaction.


Considering a customer as a single entity in a process design implies that all customers can be treated in exactly the same way. However, representing all customers in a similar manner oversimplifies and generalises the needs of the specific categories of customers. Customers with similar needs can be categorised together, and processes can be designed to cater for these different categories. These customer categories with similar needs can be called ‘persona’.

The following diagram depicts the perspective of aligning customer needs with the business offerings.


Figure 1: Value creation and delivery approach

This diagram has two sections. The top section is where an individual customer is considered from the point of view of his/her needs. Patterns are matched and customer personas are generated, and these represent a group of customers with similar needs. These needs of the various personas are the needs that, when satisfied, creates value.

The other perspective is the organisation view, where the business goals are delivered through execution of business processes. Business processes produce outcome; they deliver products and services while catering to the needs of the customers represented by the personas. The value zone represents the interface where needs are fulfilled, and the customer gets a good overall experience.

We are aligning what the business has to offer with what the customer needs. Needs that have two components: the stated needs, and the unstated needs. Good customer experience is the combined effect of fulfilling both needs.


Figure 2: Components of customer experience

To ensure the end user is in focus, we need to take a product/service view as well a process view. A product/service view ensures that the end-user needs are in focus, and a process view acknowledges that the outcome is a combined effect of multiple activities that span across the individual organisation entities.

Download Customer Experience Management Paper

Topics: BPM - Business Process Management, CXM

Customised Model Release Cycle Management in ARIS

Sam Nguyen Sam Nguyen on February 22, 2018

 Custom_Model_Release_Cycle-Management_ARISSince the first release of ARIS Connect, the concepts of publishing in ARIS have changed and lightweight workflows were introduced to provide basic support for the governance of process models. These new features have brought new and interesting experiences.

However, feedback from ARIS customers with unique needs for rigorous process model governance indicated that more is needed than the lightweight workflows—like, for example, a workflow for publishing models in isolated repositories to ensure consistency for reporting and analysis.

Although the gap left by the lightweight workflows can be filled by a fully-fledged ARIS Process Governance engine, budgets are often a barrier. On the other hand, manual administration (e.g. the handling of models across several repositories without the support of automation) requires a fair bit of maintenance.

Solution Overview

To address these challenges, a customised approach is proposed; and this article introduces a semi-automated solution through the programming and reporting capabilities in ARIS.



Figure 1 – Elements of Customised Model Release Cycle Management


The solution includes a few elements as described in Figure 1. There are four different roles that are responsible for advancing a semi-automated workflow through the invocation of designated Release Cycle Management (RCM) reports. These roles are designed for a typical scenario, and can be changed and updated according to a customer’s specific requirements.

Two repositories are used: one for housing, developing, reviewing and approving process models; and another for the released process models. The latter, the production repository, is available for operational users to consume models once released and transferred from the development repository. It is also available to process approvers to review feedback for revision should changes emerge in the process context.

A set of reports carry out actual RCM tasks, and inform the relevant roles with support from an internal email system. A set of records is logged in raw format every time a model status is changed for potential later reporting. This logged information includes: date/time, the RCM task performed, and process model information, etc.

Transitions of model status

The model status, which is identified by a model attribute, is essential to determine the status of process models in the release cycle. It is also the basis for the RCM tasks to carry out appropriate activities, inform relevant roles, and determine the next status.



Figure 2 – Transitions of model status

Model status is set to “In Progress” as soon as a new model is created. Once the model is ready for review by an appropriate reviewer, the modeller runs the RCM task “RCM – Request Model Review”. The task changes the model status to “To be reviewed”, and sends an email to the reviewer.

The model is then reviewed and, if the model needs more attention, the reviewer rejects it by running the RCM task “RCM – Reject Model”. The model status is then changed back to “In Progress” and an email is sent to the modeller with relevant comments.

Alternatively, if the model review was successful, the reviewer runs the RCM task “RCM – Request Model Approval”. The model status then changes to “Reviewed”.



Figure 3 – Implicit merge of released models

The process owner is now triggered by an email sent by the RCM task to perform the last review. The model can be rejected by the owner, or released to the production repository. The process owner, therefore, can run both RCM tasks: RCM – Reject Model or RCM – Release Model. In the latter case, the RCM task changes the model status to “Released”, locks the model in the development repository, and implicitly merges the model to the production repository. The production repository will have the same structure as the development repository and houses only released models.

The status “To be revised” is set when process owner has received feedback from operational users, or other parties, about certain defects in the process. As operational users are viewers in ARIS Connect, it is possible to inform the process owner by commenting on the model within ARIS Connect. The process owner then evaluates the feedback, and is able to run the RCM task RCM – Request Model Revision if the process needs to be revised.

From this point, further work is carried out to formalise a solution to address the reported feedback. Once the concerning model has been updated with the agreed changes, the process owner runs the RCM task RCM – Request Model Update. The model is then unlocked, and the model status changes to “In Progress”. Relevant parties receive emails about the changes, which starts a new RCM cycle.

Solution Summary

This RCM solution offers a practical and flexible approach at a reasonable cost—reasonable, that is, compared to the investment that comes with the introduction of APG.

As the automation is implemented by ARIS reports, it is possible to call these reports from both THICK and THIN clients (even by ARIS Connect viewer users), which means that all types of client are able to participate in the RCM activities if required.

This flexibility of programming also allows custom semantic checks to be incorporated in case in-built semantic checks fail to meet requirements. This pragmatic approach for semantic checks allows them to be connected to certain RCM stages. As it is a customised solution, it can be adapted to future changes.

The solution supports the participation of operational users to feedback from the context in which the processes run. Normal RCM solutions are encapsulated in a BPM Office.

Although ARIS Connect is used in this sample scenario, the solution can be adapted to support a combination of ARIS Design Server and ARIS Publisher with similar results.

ARIS Customised Reporting 


Topics: BPM - Business Process Management, BPM/EA Technology

The Problem with Process Modelling

Andreas Havliza Andreas Havliza on February 14, 2018


Is process modelling difficult? It sounds quite straightforward: processes are to be modelled—arrows and boxes—this happens, and then that happens. Let’s just get on with it!

Why is it then, that so many projects dealing with process modelling struggle with this task? Why is it, that process models are often questioned and not valued? Why is it that process models are not being used by the business, and become outdated shortly after the project that originated its production have been completed?

Cost as a barrier

Process modelling, even when done well, has a significant cost. When done poorly, it represents a serious waste of money—and, even more importantly, it creates the potential for critical misunderstandings that could have even greater financial, regulatory, customer-experience, or public-profile impacts.

Why bother with modelling?

So, why do process modelling in the first place? What is it good for? Why should anyone get into it in the first place if it comes at a significant cost and could also potentially fail? Process modelling, in itself, does not do the trick. It’s not about the number of processes modelled in a certain period that defines success or failure—it’s the quality of process models that make them essential to the decision-making process of the business. Process models, captured in the right way, support an end-to-end view of the organisation’s processes, and are the basis for process-improvement projects. They are a means to reduce the complexity of the day-to-day operations and highlight aspects in focus, whether these are runtimes, system breaks, issues with responsibilities and hand-overs, or risk exposure and introduced countermeasures.

Models to solve problems and embed strategy

Process models can support the business in becoming more efficient and solving problems—that is, saving money in the long term. It does this directly by being the basis for improving process flows, and indirectly by providing evidence to comply with standards and regulations and, therefore, avoiding penalties from governing bodies. These examples show that process modelling is not just an operational task that needs to get done and over with—it’s far more than that. To make use of its overall potential, process modelling needs to be embedded in the organisation’s strategy. Only when process modelling and the use of the related information is embedded (e.g. project management frameworks and/or compliance management) will the real benefit (that means savings) be achieved. 

Process modelling turned bad…

If this is what good looks like, what’s a picture of bad? It starts with poor modelling—that is, important information not being captured during the process mapping. Process stakeholders won’t see the value in using these process models, and will turn away, as they don’t provide any obvious benefit. The money spent on modelling is wasted. It’s even more problematic if the captured process information is inaccurate, leading the business to make wrong decisions based on incorrect data. This is especially true if aspects of risks and controls are mapped to processes to make this information the foundation to proof compliance with specific regulations. It is therefore mandatory that all related information is captured correctly.

Keeping modelling current

Here comes the next big challenge of process modelling. Once the information is captured—and let’s assume it was done correctly—it needs to be kept up to date. Without up-to-date data compliance, decisions being made based on the process information are at risk in the long term, with potentially serious consequences for organisations. Governance, ensuring process model reviews, approvals and organisation-wide communication are essential and will be discussed in this paper.

So now what?

Process modelling is a critical activity in every organisation, and represents a significant expenditure. What is the return-on-modelling? Is there a way to ensure the creation of consistently useful process models across the organisation and over time?

Yes, there is.

The Modelling Excellence framework ensures high-quality modelling, minimises the potential for waste and error, and maximises the usefulness of process models. An overview of the Modelling Excellence framework is shown in the download below which includes detailed descriptions of the nine elements that form the framework.

Download Modelling Excellence Paper

Topics: BPM - Business Process Management, Process Modelling

Driving Change With Cloud Services

Patrick Kavanagh on February 8, 2018

Driving Change With Cloud Services.png

It's just getting too hard to support the business that wants more flexibility, cheaper service provision, faster implementation, connectivity worldwide and the supply of information to multiple user access devices. All must be delivered on a reduced budget.

Can anyone help?

Why Change?

ICT has transformed how organisations operate and interact with each other. This has encouraged major corporations and Government institutions to embark on a transformational agenda to invest in new technologies to deliver better, more efficient services across the supply chain, enterprise or to the public.

Unfortunately, the majority of these very large IT/IS enabled change programmes have been plagued by the “human factor” outlining a history of failure characterised by:

  • Delay, poor performance and abandonment that has led to excessive overruns in time and cost;
  • Lack of clear Senior Management leadership, governance, programme/project management;
  • Underestimation of the business change required and ineffective engagement with

This has led to legislatures, statutory authorities and regulators creating a complex array of new laws and regulations designed to force improvement in organisational information governance, security, controls and transparency. The impact of these legislative changes led to a global revolution in governance, best practice with legislation that directly affects Information Management practices whose focus is the integrity, protection and value of data. Multinational Organisations and companies that do business internationally may also be subject to the laws of foreign jurisdictions.

These may include:

  • AS8015 Australian standard for corporate governance of information and communication technology
  • ISO/IEC 27001 Information security management systems
  • ISO/IEC 20000 IT Service management
  • AS4590 Australian Standard for the Interchange of Client Information
  • i2010 – A European Information Society for growth and employment (EU)
  • The Computer Misuse Act 1990 (UK)
  • Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 (USA)
  • The Homeland Security Act (HSA) of 2002 (USA)
  • Information and Technology Act 2000 (India) 

This complex array of legislation that is underpinned by standards and best practice has led to a significant burden being placed on the traditional ICT department who are constantly struggling to deliver compliant ICT services that provide value to their customers.

Taking these concerns into account is it time to radically rethink how traditional services are delivered in the future to Corporate/Public sector users and whether organisations, in particular the Public Sector, deliver ICT services using a 'Cloud/Utility Model' similar those used within the Telecommunications industry.

These services may include core, enterprise and industry specific applications.

If your ICT department is faced with this dilemma, what is the answer? As a provider of ICT services are you asking yourself the following questions?

  • Are we satisfying the current demands of the business, and how will we satisfy future demands?
  • Why can’t we deliver ICT services that the business accepts as value for money?
  • Why do our customers always complain about the costs of ICT services?
  • Why can't we find the right skills to supply ICT services that the business demands?
  • Why are the users unsatisfied with the level of ICT services that we supply?

To answer these types of questions this paper puts forward a practical approach that explores alternative service options.

Overview of The Approach

We have believe the best approach to ascertain if a cloud strategy/solution would benefit a given organisation, is to apply a combination of management principles from Managing Successful Programmes (MSP) and Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)v3. Experience has taught us that from a people, process and technology perspective organisations have different levels of management maturity, so adaptation of this model would vary accordingly.

Leonardo Consulting employs a unique approach to prioritise the programme of work to gain most benefit from options such as cloud services. This overall approach is illustrated at Figure 1 and further outlined within this document.


Figure 1: Service Transformation Model

Step 1: Understanding the business direction

The first step in ascertaining if the business would be better supported using a 'Cloud' based services, is to understand the aspirations of the business.

In particular:

  • What are their aspirations over a five-year time period?
  • What goods and services will they be supplying now and into the future?
  • What are their growth aspirations etc?

In large institutions this information is usually documented with in the strategic five-year plan.


Step 2: How does ICT support the business

Once the strategic business direction is understood, an analysis of the information systems and underpinning information infrastructure is undertaken to get an appreciation of what enhancements or creation of new services are required to support the business strategy. The overall objective is to align ICT to the business in its future state and specify the ICT pipeline. Analysis of the ICT department is required to identify the services that are currently being supplied to the business and at the same time assess overall maturity level of these services. In organisations that have implemented service management best practice this information would be found within the service catalogue.

To achieve this we would apply the following steps:

  • Identifying and document the service portfolio in accordance to ITIL v3 best practice;
  • Map the service portfolio to the business at process and departmental levels;
  • Determine the 'business value' of each service by specifying the cost and value to the business;
  • Determine the 'customer value' of each service by ascertaining if the service is 'fit for purpose' and 'fit for use';
  • Production of a service status

Service Dimension Model

Leonardo Consulting will then evaluate each service using a 4D value dimension model to determine the 'business value' and 'customer value'.

Business value evaluates the service from a business value perspective.

To determine business value, the following dimension measures are assessed:

  • ‘Strategic Alignment’ to the business in its current and planned future
  • ‘Service Cost’ in relation to how many users there are of the service. Identifying the number of users who actively use the service and dividing this by the cost of supplying the service determines

Customer value evaluates the service from the customer perspective.

To determine customer value the following dimension measures are assessed:

  • 'Fit for Use' capability, for example, does the service definition clearly articulate what it actually delivers to the business and by using the service does it deliver the outcomes the business 
  • 'Fit for Purpose' This is determined by carrying out an evaluation of service reports that are attributed to the service.

Each of the value dimensions are scored from 0 - 10 attracting a red, amber or green colour as illustrated at Figure 2. The output of this analysis is then placed on a service status map, as illustrated at Figure 3.Service_4D_Dimension_Model.pngFigure 2: Service 4D Dimension Model


Step 3: How ICT will support the business in the future

After analysis and placing the services onto the service status map a clear picture will evolve across the entire service portfolio identifying services that 'meets expectation', those that would require some 'realignment or improvement'  and those that 'fails expectation'. We use this analysis to prioritise services that could be transferred to cloud service offerings. 

In some cases after analysis we have discovered that all services can fall within the ‘fails expectation’ part of the map. This is usually due to inadequate supply of the underpinning information infrastructure. To resolve this particular issue it would be wise to seek providers who supply Infrastructure as a Service (laas), Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS) or Platform as a Service (PaaS) cloud solutions. 

Another cause of multiple failures can be the lack of integrated service management processes. To resolve this issue consideration should be given to move all services to a cloud service or instigate a service improvement programme to uplift the 'fit for use' service component.

  Service Status Map (incorporating Service 4D Dimension Model.png

Figure 3: Service Status Map (incorporating Service 4D Dimension Model)


Step 4: Define The Programme of Work

The analysis performed in step 3 will expose the services that are difficult to supply effectively. The next step is to create a transformation programme whose likely objectives will be:

  • To improve the services that fall with in the 'requires improvement' segment of the map;
  • Establish the root cause regarding the services that fall within the 'fails expectation' part of the map and then plan the appropriate

Likely root causes:

  • Service levels do not match business expectations;
  • The technology that underpins the service is vintage; 
  • The skills required to supply the service are inadequate;
  • The cost to supply the service seem excessive;
  • The service is not reliable;
  • The service is not customer

The ultimate goal of the transformation programme is to move all services to the 'meets expectation' part of the map. To achieve this you may consider moving some of the services to cloud providers. lf this analysis points to cloud provision it would be necessary to consider the organisational changes needed to be made within the incumbent ICT team from both a people process and technology perspective. It is for this reason we recommend MSP as an enabler to manage the transformation. Applying this management method to the transformation will ensure that from the outset the benefits are fully articulated, strengthening the case for transformation across the stakeholder community. It would also provide the necessary governance across the programme and incorporate organisation change leading to the assurance of benefits.

To assist on this journey Leonardo Consulting has identified current industry offerings in a number of capabilities marketed as Cloud or Utility Computing. 

These fall into three main categories: 

  • General;
  • Software; and
  • Hardware

Relationships to software and infrastructures are shown below in Table 1.





Cloud Computing

Application as a Service (AaaS)

Servers (Beyond Blades)

Grid Computing

 Application Platform as a Service (APaaS)


 Client Server Model

 Platform as a Service (PaaS)

 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)


 Software as a Service (SaaS)

 Hardware as a Service (Haas)



 Unified Communications



Unified Communications as a service (UCaaS)



On-demand self service


Table 1: Cloud Offerings

The levels of service offered for Cloud can be grouped into the following three levels.

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): In this most basic cloud service model, cloud providers offer computers, as physical or more often as virtual machines, and other resources. Examples of IaaS include: Amazon Cloud

Formation (and underlying services such as Amazon EC2), Rackspace Cloud, Terremark and Google Compute Engine.

  • Platform as a Service (PaaS): In the PaaS model, cloud providers deliver a computing platform typically including operating system, programming language execution environment, database, and web

Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. Examples of PaaS include: Amazon Elastic Beanstalk, Heroku, EngineYard, Mendix, Google App Engine, Microsoft Azure and OrangeScape.

  • Software as a Service (SaaS): In this model, cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients. The cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform on which the application is running. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the cloud user's own computers simplifying maintenance and support. Examples of SaaS include: Google Apps, Quickbooks Online, innkeypos, Salesforce.com and Microsoft Office 365.

Step 5: Transition to the new service model

Once the programme has been defined and agreed the programme will enter into the mobilisation stage, likely to include the following activities:

  • Mobilisation of the communications strategy;
  • Messaging to stakeholders, specifically giving them updates regarding the benefits;
  • Distribution of the programme definition outlining the programme project portfolio;
  • Programme project kick-off;
  • Instigation of the programmes detailed project

Step 6: Was it successful

During the programme definition stage benefits will have been identified and profiled. As the programme progressed through its lifecycle, programme governance would have ensured the benefits were tracked and reported on. The measurement criteria specified within the profiles will be used to report on the programmes success.


If you take a look at the telecommunications industry you will notice that a majority of the services they provide are done so by a utility supply model.

This model will be further adopted by the IT industry as standards and ways of working mature, thus migration to utility provision will become a reality.

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Topics: BPM - Business Process Management, Intergration